Training Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning

Medical Students

The following best practices essays are excerpted from “Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning in the Health Sciences.” Each essay provides an example of training reasoning skills and thinking mindset described by international experts in training clinical reasoning. Contributors were asked to describe their favorite lesson, but one that could be generalized to other disciplines, and to provide evidence of its effectiveness.

Although the specific example lessons described by these authors focus on the content knowledge of their respective practice disciplines, the educational approaches and techniques are highly transferable to all types of training programs and educational projects. Download these essays with our compliments.  And visit the other parts of our website for more resources.


Perspective 1: Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning

Perspective 2: Teaching Critical Thinking in Medicine

Perspective 3: Health Care Ethics – The Impact of Culture

Using Analytical and Evaluative Community-Based Projects

Using Cases

Using Challenges to Conventional Ideas Embedded in Ethics, Laws, and Culture

Using “The Clinical Sieve” to Express Diagnostic Thinking

Using the Creative Arts and Qualitative Ethnography

Using Journaling 

Using Life Style Products – Evaluating a Nutritional Supplement

Using Media Advertising in Distance Learning

Using Multiple Exercises to Integrate Skills and Habits of Mind

Using Problem-Based Learning

Using Reflective Storytelling – Going from “What” to “Why”

Using Research Poster Presentations

Using Role-Play Strategies

Using Scoring Rubrics Developmentally

Using Teachable Moments in Clinical Practice

Using Theoretical Models

Using Workshop Exercises – Reflecting on Practice

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