Processes and Policies to Achieve an Authorized Translation
Insight Assessment / The California Academic Press (“The Press”) supports rigorous, high quality, multi-modal assessment research and evaluation of human reasoning skills and thinking mindset attributes. Purposeful, self-regulatory judgment and the disposition toward critical thinking are phenomena that transcend geography, culture, race, ideology, and language. Measures of human reasoning and thinking mindset attributes are, of necessity, embedded in language. Hence, a person’s performance on those measures is likely to be most accurately reflective of a person’s skills and attributes if the measures are in the person’s native language.
The Press supports carefully crafted and scientifically controlled research aimed at the development of valid and reliable translations of The Press’ English language assessment tools into other languages. To help assure the quality, validity, reliability, cultural sensitivity, ethical use of any of its instruments in translation, The Press follows certain policies and practices with regard to the development and field testing of translated versions of its commercially available assessment tools.
Authorized translations of assessment tools published by The Press result from translation projects which involve close communication between at least one senior research associate of The Press and a translation project leader who is fluent in English and the target language. All translation project leaders must be so designated by The Press. The translation project leader is responsible for assuring that the translated version of the assessment tool is culturally sensitive. That is, in broad general terms, the translated version of the assessment tool must be psychometrically valid and reliable, socially and contextually acceptable, and personally meaningful for the intended subjects.
To protect the security of its testing instruments and to support its customers who are using those instruments for high stakes assessment purposes, The Press does not release proprietary business information such as factor structures, item weighting on scales, scoring algorithms, item level test taker responses, percentile aggregation strategies, and the like. The Press does not sell to nor not permit its instruments to be used by those seeking to conduct factor analyses psychometric evaluations, or validation studies of Insight Assessment tools, nor to be used by those seeking to develop or validate their own testing instruments by reference to Insight Assessment instruments.
The translation project must involve at least these two phases: The preparation of a final draft translated version of the instrument, and the pilot testing of that translated version. Persons interested in discussing possible translation projects or becoming translation project leaders should address inquires to The Press.
Costs Unless otherwise negotiated, the project leader is responsible for all translation costs outlined in Step 1 below except those costs associated with Step 1 part (c). In addition, the project leader is responsible for all monies due to the press as payment for use of translated pilot drafts, translated final drafts and any non-translated drafts.
Specific Conditions and Procedures
Step 1. Translations must preserve the logical structure, subject content, contextual communication characteristics, and reading level of all English language test items and statement prompts. To assure this, first
- the translation project leader shall provide a complete and accurate translation of the assessment tool from English into the target language. Then,
- a translation back into English, independently performed, must verify the accuracy of the target language translation. Third,
- another independent translator, generally a college level educator with personal expertise in both English and the target language and culture, is retained by The Press to assist in the adjudication of translation discrepancies which may arise from the translation into the target language and the back translation. Arrangements for each of these phases must be reviewed by a research associate of The Press. Step 1 culminates in a PILOT draft translated version of the instrument. See Step 5 for important cover and page format and copyright notice requirements
Step 2. The translation project leader will arrange for a suitable field-test of the PILOT draft translated version. The field-test will sample a sufficient number of persons as to permit statistical analysis of the resulting data for purposes of evaluating the performance of the PILOT draft translated version of the instrument. Other academic and demographic data about the subjects participating in the field-test must be included for analysis and correlation with pilot draft field-test results. Details of the field-test design and dataset must be approved by a senior research associate of The Press. Where possible the field-test should include an appropriate comparison group sample taken of native English language speakers using the English language version of the instrument. A copy of the complete field-test dataset must be transmitted to The Press for statistical analysis.
- All factor analytic or other validation research is conducted exclusively by The Press. If sufficient data has been collected The Press expects to be able to provide the translator with scale reliability information (alphas). However, the number of items on each scale, their weightings, the factor structure of the instrument, item level responses, and scoring algorithms are proprietary business information and are not shared with any Insight Assessment customers including translators.
- If data collection is done using paper-and-pencil test booklets and answer forms, translators should send their data to The Press for scoring. If data collection has been accomplished using the online testing system, those data are automatically available to The Press. At the point when data is being transmitted to The Press either from paper-and-pencil collection or collection through the online testing system, the translator should notify by email the translation project agent. Ordinarily, expenses for the field-test required in Step 2 are covered by the translation project leader.
Step 3. In view of field-test results, The Press will determine the extent to which the PILOT draft translation might require revisions. Additional field-testing may be required at this point. When all field-testing and translation revisions have been completed to the mutual satisfaction of the translation project leader and The Press, including the translation of the User Manual if deemed necessary by The Press, the development phases of the translation project shall be considered complete.
Step 4. After the development phases are completed, the project leader will provide The Press with a word- processed (Word file) FINAL DRAFT translated version of the test instrument; and, if necessary, a word-processed translation of the associated Test Manual. Expenses for Step 4 are covered by the translation project leader.
Step 5. On both the PILOT version and the FINAL draft version, the front cover of the test instrument in translation must match the front cover of the English version in design, color and format. The translation project leader will be acknowledged on the front cover of the translated version. To the extent possible the PILOT and FINAL draft translated versions shall be layout edited and paginated so that item and prompts are displayed as in the English version. All international copyrights for the English version and the translated version shall remain with the authors and/or the California Academic Press. On the pilot draft, final draft, and any subsequent commercially available versions, an appropriate copyright statement must appear on the front cover and as a footer on every page of the instrument. The name of the translator(s) will be included as translators, not as authors, on the translated versions of the instrument. All footnotes in the original testing instruments must be translated and appear in the FINAL draft version.
Step 6. The FINAL draft translated version of the instrument shall not be available for commercial use until approved by The Press. Unless other arrangements are made, The Press shall be responsible for printing and publishing the commercially available translated version of the test instrument.
NOTE: To continue to use the test, the project leader must make purchasing arrangements for testing licenses with The Press. All conditions of purchase as specified on the Insight Assessment website, the User Manual, or the sales order apply. These purchases of testing licenses for the use of the test which the translator has translated will be offered to the translator at a special translator discount rate.